Camel * Kameel * Camelus

Camels bear distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels are working animals, especially suited to their desert habitat and are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. 
There are three surviving species of camel. The one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, and the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up 6%. The Wild Bactrian camel is a separate species and is now critically endangered.
The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years.Camels can run at up to 65 km/h (40 mph) in short bursts and sustain speeds of up to 40 km/h.

Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water. The dromedary camel can drink as seldom as once every 10 days even under very hot conditions, and can lose up to 30% of its body mass due to dehydration.

Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other mammals. Their temperature ranges from 34 °C (93 °F) at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C (104 °F) by sunset, before they cool off at night again. In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day.

Maintaining the brain temperature within certain limits is critical for animals; to assist this, camels have a rete mirabile, a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which utilizes countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to the brain.

The hybrid camel, a hybrid between Bactrian and dromedary camels, weighs an average of 650 kg (1,430 lb) and can carry around 400 to 450 kg (880 to 990 lb).

Camel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes and is sometimes considered a meal itself; a nomad can live on only camel milk for almost a month.

There are approximately 14 million camels alive as of 2010, with 90% being dromedaries. Dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in the Horn of Africa, the Sahel, Maghreb, Middle East and South Asia). The Horn region alone has the largest concentration of camels in the world.

Known as a "Kameel" in Afrikaans.